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India By State - Uttarakhand - State Overview

State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Dehradun
Area (sq km) 53,483
Population (Census 2001, million) 8.5
Literacy Rate (%) 71.6
NSDP Growth (1993-94 to 2002-03) --
NSDP at current prices in 2004-05 US$5,060.2 million
Annual Per Capita Income at current prices in 2004-05 US$ 595.26
National Highways Length (km) 1,327.6
Rail Length (km) 345
Domestic Airports Jolly Grant. Pant Nagar
Key Industries Hydropower, floriculture, horticulture, agro-based and food processing industries, information communication technology, biotechnology.
Industries with Growth Potential Sericulture, Fisheries, Tea, Bamboo and Fibre developments

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The state of Uttarakhand is the one of the youngest states in India, having been formed on 9th November 2000 out of 14 hilly districts of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Uttarakhand has a total geographic area of 53'483 Km2 of which 93% is mountainous and 64% is covered by forest. Uttarakhand forms a part of the strategically important Northern boundary of the country sharing borders with Nepal and Tibet (china), Uttar Pradesh makes up the southern border with Himachal Pradesh to the west and Nepal to the East. Most of the Northern parts of the state are part of Greater Himalaya ranges with snow capped mountains and the southern parts mainly under forest cover. The climate and vegetation are as equally diverse.

The state of Uttarakhand is one of only five states in India to be declared as UNESCO's World Heritage Biodiversity sites due to its vast forest cover and variety of flora and fauna.

Two of India's most famous rivers the Ganga and the Yamuna both take birth in the glaciers of Uttarakhand and are fed by myriad lakes, glacial melts and streams in the region.



The state of Uttarakhand has a population of 8.5 million.

Population demographics




Total population (Census 2001) (in million) 8.5 1028.61
Decadal Growth (Census 2001) (%) NA 21.4
Crude Birth Rate (SRS 2007) 20.4 23.1
Crude Death Rate (SRS 2007) 6.8 7.4
Total Fertility Rate (SRS 2007) NA 2.7
Infant Mortality Rate (SRS 2007) 48 55
Maternal Mortality Ratio (SRS 2004 - 2006) 440 254
Maternal Mortality Ratio (SRS 2004 - 2006) 440 254
Sex Ratio (Census 2001) 962 933
Population below Poverty line (%) -- 26.10
Schedule Caste population (in million) 1.52 166.64
Schedule Tribe population (in million) 0.26 84.33
Female Literacy Rate (Census 2001) 59.6 53.7

Hindus form the majority of the population with 85% being Hindu, 10.5% are Muslim, 2.5% Sikh and Christians, Buddhists, Jains and others about 0.5%. The state literacy rate has increased considerably over the years, in 1991 the literacy rate was at 57.75% this has increased to 71.6 which is also higher than the average literacy rate for the whole of India

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Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) for the state of Uttarakhand at current prices in 2004-05 was at US$5,365.6 million. The main contributor to the GSDP is the service sector; the service sector contributes over half the GSDP at 51% and the manufacturing sector contributes 25%. The state is essentially driven by the tertiary sector and mainly the tourism industry. The primary sector, industries such as agriculture, cultivation and mining, is the lowest contributor to the states GDP with a contribution of only 24%. The states per capita income in 2004-05 was US$595.26, showing an increase of 5.2% since 1991-92 however it was still lower than the all India average.


Physical Infrastructure


There are two domestic airports, Jolly Grant and Pantnagar, in Uttarakhand with regular flights to and from Delhi. The state aims at positioning air-transport as a reliable all-weather transport option in hills. Work to upgrade the Pantnagar Airport to an international airport is under way and funding for the construction of at least one helipad per district has also been set aside.


There are 27,509.58 km of road which connect 9419 of the 15656 villages in the state. Uttarakhand is connected with other states through 1,327.60 of national highways and 1542.78 of state highways. The state government and in particular the public works department has planned several build-operate-transfer projects under public private partnerships. In 2005-06 US$88.75 million was spent on road transport which was 40% higher than the previous year's expenditure.


Urban infrastructure development is a top priority for the government of the state of Uttarakhand, in 2005-06 US$20.33 million was allocated for urban development and this was further increased in the 2006-07 to US$58.84 million.

Plans including major housing projects are under way with the latest project for 275 acre housing project in Haridwar. Conservation plans are also underway with aid from the government of India providing US$15.12 million for the conservation and rejuvenation of Naini and four other Lakes.

The state government has begun to support traditional methods of water harvesting in a concentrated effort to improve the quality of water available in the state. In 2005-06 alone US$76.28 million was spent on the state water systems. The government proposed a further US$86.05 million to be spent on improvements in 2006-07. Along with the water systems the government has launched a campaign called 'Total sanitation' to improve the waste disposal system

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Growth/ Achievement

Villages Electrified (Nos.) 1263 14377 1814
Hamlets Electrified (Nos.) 703 3368 2665
BPL connections (Nos.) - 82243 82243
PTW Connections (Nos.) 16667 19107 2440
Consumers (Nos.) 816949 10653 248407
Rural Electrification % (incl. UREDA) 79 95.48 95.48
AT&C losses % 45.07 45.07 45.07
Annual Per Capita consumption (KWh) 413 654 241
Human Capital Workforce (Nos.) 5807 4998 4998

Telecom & IT

The state of Uttarakhand has a well established and developed communication network compromising of both wired and wireless connectivity, the presence of a software technology park of India earth station at Dehradun and proposed earth stations at other locations have positioned the state well with respect to providing high speed connectivity.

The states Information and Technology Department have actively worked in developing two information technology parks in the state.

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Social Infrastructure


The state government has focussed a lot of its efforts on improving the Health infrastructure to try improving the standard of living within the state by implementing the Health and population policy. Some of the main objectives of the policy are; to eradicate polio by 2007, reduce the level of leprosy to below 1 per 10000 population by December 2007, Reduce mortality on account of tuberculosis, malaria, other vector and water-borne diseases by 50% by 2010, reduce prevalence of blindness from around 1 to 0.3% by 2010, reduce iodine deficiency disorder (IDD) by 50% of the present level by 2010), and to increase awareness on HIV/AIDS.

District level Hospital 14
Base hospital 3
Ayurvedic Centre 495
P.H.C./Additional P.H.C 224
Community health centre 49
State Allopathic Hospitals 322
Joint/women Hospital 40
Tehsil/Dist. Level post param centre 24
Health post 9
Tuberculosis Hospital/ Clinic 18
Leprosy 3
Beds in Govt. Hospitals 7676

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The state of Uttarakhand is well renowned for being home to some of the best institutes of higher learning in the country, institutes such as GB Pant University of Agriculture and Technology in Pantnagar; Indian Institute of Technology in Roorkee; Forest Research Institute of Dehradun; GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development in Almora; Rural Biotechnology Complex in Kosi and Herbal Research and Development Institute, Gopeswar. With 20,875 schools and colleges the state boasts a literacy rate of 71.6 % higher than the all- India average. The state government holds the education system as a top priority and strives to achieve a literacy rate of 95 %, to do this the government has laid a three-fold strategy with the following elements:

  • 100% enrolment
  • 100% Retention
  • Continuous Education Programme

The state also plans to achieve 100% computer literacy for students by the end of the 10th fiver year-plan, to assist in this objective the state has worked at improving the IT infrastructure at all levels beginning with educational institutions.


Industrial Infrastructure

The state has evolved from a predominantly agrarian state into a hub of industrial activity. During 2005-06, the state successfully completed the following projects;

  • 3 integrated Industrial Estates (IIEs) at Haridwar, Pantnagar and sitarganj
  • Pharma city at Salequi
  • Information Technology Park at Sahastradhana (Dehradun)
  • Growth Centre at Siddadi (Kotdwar)

In the same year the state of Uttarakhand also saw the development of 20 private/Joint/Co-operative sector industrial sectors in Public-Private Partnership mode.

Other development projects that have been undertaken include:

  • Provision of broadband connectivity for all industries in the state
  • Proposed strengthening of single window - contact, information and facilitation mechanism during 2006-07

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More Information on Uttarakhand

Back to interactive India state map

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