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India By State - Rajasthan - State Overview

State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Jaipur
Area (sq km) 342,239
Population (Census 2001, million) 56.51
Literacy Rate (%) 60.4
Human Development Index 0.424 (All India rank 9th)
NSDP (US$ billion) 36.4
NSDP growth (10 years) (%) 9.6
Per Capita Income (US$) 640.1
Exports (US$ million) 965
National Highways length (km) 5714
International Airport Jaipur
Domestic Airport Jodhpur, Udaipur, Jaisalmer, Bikaner and Kota
Key Industries Mineral based industries
Gem and jewellery
Dimensional stones (marble and granite)
Potential Industries Oil and gas
Electricity generation and distribution

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Rajasthan, located in the northwestern part of India, is the largest State in terms of area, covering 342,239 sq km (132,139 square miles). It lies between 23 degree 3' and 30 degree 12' North latitudes; and 69 degree 30' and 78 degree 17' East longitudes. It is bound by Pakistan in the west and north-west; by Punjab in the north; by Haryana in the north-east; by Uttar Pradesh in the east; by Madhya Pradesh in the south-east and Gujarat in the south-west. The southern part of the State is about 225 km from the Gulf of Kutch and about 400 km from the Arabian Sea.

The State is rich in its natural beauty, ranging from dense forests and hills to deserts and valleys. The lofty hills of Aravali's (one of the oldest mountain ranges of the world) and the golden sand dunes of the Great Indian Desert (the only desert of the sub-continent) are the two characteristic features of Rajasthan's landscape. Its rich culture includes forts, palaces, carved temples, havelis, museums, archaeological sites and art galleries, all of which preserve this great heritage for posterity.



Population Demographics

  • Population: 56.51 million
  • Density: 165 per sq. km.
  • Urban Population: 23.38%
  • Literacy Rate: 60.04%
  • Male Literacy: 76.46%
  • Female Literacy: 44.34%
  • Sex Ratio: 922 females to 1000 males
  • Decadal Growth Rate: 28.41%
  • Religion(s):.8% Hindu, 8.5% Muslim, 1.4% Sikhs, 1.2% Jains

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With an impressive growth rate of 10% since 2000-01, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Rajasthan has reached US $41.7 billion.

In relation to sectoral contribution to GSDP, The primary sector has increased its share to 40 per cent in 2008-09 compared to 22.8 per cent in 2002-03. Agriculture alone contributes to the 80 per cent of the share in primary sector.

The share of the secondary sector in the GSDP is marginally above 3 %, more or less same as that for the duration 2005-06. The tertiary sector accounted for the highest share in the GSDP. Tertiary sector contributed about 57 per cent in 2006-2007. Major industries, such as trade, hotels and restaurants and real estate grew at a CAGR of 9 per cent in this sector.

The Per Capita Income of Rajasthan is US $640, while the all India average is US $514.2. The estimated percentage of the population in Rajasthan that are below the poverty line is 12.11%, as compared to 19.34% for All-India.

Distribution of households by income shows that share of households in higher income categories in Rajasthan is greater than that of the all India average. (A trend common for rural as well as urban households).In ownership of assets, like four wheelers and consumer electronics, Rajasthan is slightly lower than All-India figures, except in the case of two wheelers.

Industrial performance has been driven by mainly small scale units, which generate 7 times more employment in comparison to medium and large industries. Small units dominate all industries within the State.

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Physical Infrastructure


Rajasthan is well connected to the main cities of the country by State and National Highways. Rajasthan has a total road length of 186,806 km. Out of these, 5,714 km are national highways, 11,751 km are state highways, and 7,658 km are major district roads.

Through different schemes like the Missing Link project and Central Road Fund, new roads are being constructed to link all villages in the state. Road stretches joining national highways are being upgraded into expressways, providing better and quicker connectivity. Road Infrastructure Development Company of Rajasthan Ltd (RIDCOR) is an ambitious initiative of Government of Rajasthan for improving the state's road infrastructure. RIDCOR is a public limited company constituted as a 50:50 joint initiative of Government of Rajasthan and Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services Ltd (IL&FS).

By Air

There are three main airports in Rajasthan- Jaipur airport, Udaipur airport and Jodhpur airport. These airports connect Rajasthan with the major cities of India such as Delhi and Mumbai.

  • Jaipur has a completely operational International airport with flights to Dubai, Sharjah, Bangkok, and Singapore.
  • Besides Jaipur, domestic airports are located at Jodhpur and Udaipur, with regular flights from New Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bangalore, and Ahmedabad.
  • Air cargo complex at Jaipur, inland container depots at Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bhilwara, and Bhiwadi provide conductive environment for trade within and outside India.

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By Rail

Rajasthan is well connected with the main cities of India by rail. Jaipur, Ajmer, Udaipur and Jodhpur are the main railway stations in Rajasthan.

  • Rajasthan has a good railway network with a route length of about 5,683 km, out of which 65 percent is under broad gauge.
  • Railway route length per 1000 sq km of geographical is 16.6 km in the state as against the national average of 19.23 km.
  • Important routes are Jodhpur-Marwar, Jodhpur-Jaisalmer, Lalgarh-Kolayat and Lalgarh-Merta Road.


The installed capacity in Rajasthan as of March 2009 is 4702.9 MW. Per capita consumption of electricity in Rajasthan is 572.20 kWh, which is lower than the national average of 631.41 kWh for the year 2005-06.

The state plans to add another 3180 MW to the existing capacity by 2012. Three new power units have recently been commissioned (a 125 MW lignite-based thermal power plant and two units of 110 MW gas-based thermal power plants).

Six more units are under construction that would add 1180 MW to the state's supply. Renewable energy sources like the Wind Power Project (450 MW installed) and Biomass Project (46.3 MW installed) have been actively promoted by the state government. Domestic Lighting System (DLS) is being installed under the state plan. 72,491 DLS have been installed in more than 2000 villages of the state.

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Social Infrastructure

Educational Institutes

Rajasthan has a college population of 63 000 students as compared to the national average of 77,000 per college. There are over 729 institutes including 64 Engineering colleges, 38 Polytechnic Institutes, and 431 Industrial Training Institutes (ITIs). Far-famed institutions, including Raffles University, Manipal University and NIIT are set to commence operations soon.


The state has 126 hospitals, 349 primary health centres and 1540 dispensaries. The State government has constructed four main hospitals in Jaipur, namely Zanana Hospital, Mahila Chiktsalya, Jay Kay Lon Hospital and S.M.S. Hospital at a combined cost of US$ 4.94 million between 2004 and 2005.

Health Indicators

Infrastructure Investment

Infrastructure investments in Rajasthan were over US$ 8.3 billion, as of December 2008. Over 70 per cent of investments in infrastructure were in the area of power generation and distribution. About 20 per cent of the investments were in the oil and gas sector, while another 6 per cent were in the road sector


The communication has been developed from 2002. There were 777 000 cellular users in 2004. Now the Rajasthan Circle had a total of 22.8 million cellular subscribers as on September 2009.

The state had a total of 4.7 million wire line subscribers, accounting for 4.4 per cent of the country's total. The state has about 10,364 post offices, 559 telegraph offices and 2338 telephone exchanges.

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Industrial Infrastructure


Jaipur, the capital and largest city of Rajasthan, has a population of approximately 2.3 million. It is well connected to Delhi and other major cities across India. Its' international airport offers direct flights to South-east Asia and the Middle East, as well as to many other cities across India. It is a prime destination for domestic and foreign tourists in the country. Jaipur has 19 industrial areas with product base including gems & jewellery, marble, granite and engineering items. It is also a potential destination for IT and ITES industries coming to the state.

It becomes a fusion of cultural heritage and modern economic development. The city has caught the attention of business conglomerates and becomes a strategic place and a commercial hub to operate business from.

About BPO Companies (Business Process Outsourcing), the city has attracted banks (HSBC, Genpact, Tata AIG, Reliance Infocomm, Yes Bank and Standard Chartered) to establish a foothold in the city and to explore the possibilities of setting up their centres too.


Kota is a prominent business and industrial centre in Rajasthan. It has a population of 0.7 million. It is located on the main railway line connecting Delhi and Mumbai. Kota has 14 industrial estates and a number of large chemical units. Products from these units include fertilizers, caustic soda, cement, copper based items, stones & tiles, PVC items and tyre chord fabric. The areas surrounding Kota also have large limestone and sandstone deposits.



Theme Parks RIICO is developing Theme Parks (Special Purpose Industrial Parks) with special set of infrastructure and facilities for establishing industries of the same discipline.
Export Promotion Industrial Parks Export Promotion Industrial Parks have been set up at Sitapura in Jaipur, Neemrana in Alwar and Boranada in Jodhpur. EPIP Jaipur is the largest export park in northern India.
SEZs RIICO has set up two Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in the state for gems & jewellery and handicrafts at Jaipur and Jodhpur respectively. These zones will be free from all domestic tax burdens and there will be no procedural bottlenecks.
SEZ for IT State-of-the-art Special Economic Zone is being developed by Mahindra and Mahindra with an investment of US$ 244 million, which will have Infosys and Wipro as anchor investors and would attract the best of names from India and abroad.
Inland Container Depots For movement of cargo, there are Inland Container Depots at Jaipur, Jodhpur, Bhiwadi and Bhilwara.

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More Information on Rajasthan

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