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India By State - Meghalaya - State Overview

State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Shillong
Area (sq km) 22, 429
Population (Census 2001, million) 2.3
Literacy Rate (%) 62.6
NSDP Growth (1999-2000 to 2007-08) 10.6 per cent CAGR
NSDP at current prices in 2007-08 US$ 1.67 billion
Annual Per Capita Income at current prices in 2007-08 US$ 751.3
National Highways Length (km) 810
Domestic Airports Umroi and Balajek
Key Industries Agriculture and food processing, Horticulture, Mining, cement, tourism, Hydroelectric power, Dairy and livestock, Handloom and Handicrafts, and steel processing.
Industries with Growth Potential Tourism, Hydroelectric power, and Minerals and mining.


The state covers an Area of 22 429 sq km and shares its border with the state of Assam in the North and Bangladesh in the south. There are seven administrative districts and Shillong is the capital.

With an average rainfall of 1200 cm, Meghalaya is the wettest state in the country. The diverse range of soil types, including red-loamy and laterite, support the variety of agricultural crops growing in the state.

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Population of Meghalaya

Meghalaya is one of three states in India to have a Christian Majority with over 70.3% of the population practicing Christianity. Hinduism is the next largest faith in the region with 13.3% of population practicing. The remaining percentage of the population is either Animist or Muslims.

As per census 2001, the sex ratio in the state was 980 females per thousand males which is far higher than the national average of 933.


The GSDP for the state, as per current prices in 2007-08, was US$1.89 billion. The GSDP saw a growth of 10.9 per cent at CAGR between 1999-2000 and 2000-08. The largest contributors to the states GSDP were the Agriculture, tourism, and mining sectors.

The NSDP for the state at current prices, 2007-08, was US$ 1.67 billion. The NSDP saw a growth of 10.6 percent at CAGR between 1999-2000 and 2007-08.

The largest contributor to the states economy is the tertiary sector which is driven by trade, tourism, real estate, transport and communications. The tertiary sector grew at a CAGR of 11.1 per cent between 1999-2000 and 2007-08. The secondary sector, however, is the fastest growing sector with a growth of 21.6 per cent at CAGR. The sector is driven by the manufacturing, construction and electricity industries. The primary sectors share in the GSDP has been declining over the years: between 1999-2000 and 2007-08 it registered a CAGR of 8.7 per cent.

Meghalaya's per capita GSDP in 2007-08 was US$ 751.3; the per capita GSDP has increased at a CAGR of 9.3 per cent between 1999-2000 and 2007-08.

The key industries identified by the state government are: Agriculture and food processing, Horticulture, Mining, cement, tourism, hydroelectric power, dairy and livestock, handloom and handicrafts, and steel processing.

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Physical Infrastructure


Meghalaya has a total road length of 8 371 km, with a road density of 36.4 km per 100 sq km. The state is well connected to neighbouring states and other parts of India through four National Highways.

Meghalaya does not have a railway station, the nearest one being in the neighbouring state of Assam. However land acquisition is in progress for the construction of two railway stations at Mendipathar and Byrnihat.

The state also has two domestic airports, at Umroi and Balajek. The Balajek airport is currently undergoing construction work to expand.


Meghalaya had a total installed power capacity of 189.1 MW, all under the Meghalaya Power Generation Corporation. Of the 189.1 MW of power generated hydroelectric power constitutes 187 MW and diesel power 2.1 MW. The state government has identified potential for 3000 MW of hydroelectric power to be generated, currently only 187 MW has been tapped and so work is starting on trying to expand the hydroelectric power industry with outside investment being sought after.

The per capita power consumption of the state is 387.4 kWh and so the power requirements are fulfilled comfortably. The majority, 73 per cent, of the villages have been electrified with plans underway to electrify the whole state by 2012.


Meghalaya has a well established telecom infrastructure with over 118 telephone exchanges, 67 766 landline connections, 10 592 WLL connections and 89 665 mobile phone connections. There are also 7360 internet connections in the state including 1621 working broadband connections. Along with the telephone and internet connections there are 390 post offices in the state providing postal services across the state.

Water supply & Sewerage

The average per capita supply of water in major cities and towns is 150-200 litres per day. Meghalaya has 16 urban agglomerations and about 71 per cent of the population in these is provided with piped-water supply.

Due to the large amounts of tourism and the governments active work to preserve the natural beauty of Meghalaya Solid-waste segregation and disposal is diligently adhered to across the state.

A 100 tonnes per day (TPD) compost plant in Shillong and 40 TPD plant in Tura are operational in the public private partnership (PPP) mode for safe disposal of solid wastes.

Sites have been identified in Williamnagar, Baghmara and Resubelpara` and work has commenced on developing compost plants.

Under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), two projects worth US$ 47.4 million were approved in 2008-09 for developing urban infrastructure in Shillong; the aim is to provide better drainage and drinking water supply.

Under the Environmental Improvement of Urban Slums (EIUS) programme, 45 notified and five slum areas in Shillong, Tura, Jowai, Baghmara, Williamnagar and Nongstoin have been provided with basic amenities.

The New Shillong township is being developed, based on the Shillong Master Plan, 1991-2011; the new township would cover an area of 2,030 hectares, of which 500 acres is to be acquired and developed by the government.

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Social Infrastructure


Meghalaya has a literacy rate of 62.6 percent which is similar to the national average. The literacy for males is 65.4 per cent and for females 59.6 per cent.

Educational Infrastructure

Universities 1
Colleges 56
Polytechnics and ITI training institutes 8
Teacher training institutes 3
High and higher secondary schools 774
Middle and senior basic schools 2,259
Primary and junior basic schools 6,351

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There are 10 private hospitals in the state with total bed strength of 1650 beds. There are also four military and paramilitary hospitals provide preventive and promotional healthcare services.

Health Indicators

Beds per 100,000 population 137
Birth rate (per thousand persons) 24.4
Death rate (per thousand persons) 7.5
Infant mortality rate (per thousand live births) 56


Industrial Infrastructure

Meghalaya has six industrial estates, an industrial area, export promotion industrial park, and a growth centre situated in different towns and cities around the town.

Each administrative district has a DIC (District industrial centre) which are involved in industrial infrastructure development of the district.

The state government have highlighted their aim to develop the industrial infrastructure in the state by constituting a single-window clearance agency for industrial investment approvals.

Techno-economic feasibility reports (TEFR) are available with the MIDC for poultry, agro-based industry, fruit processing, paper-grade lime, alcohol from tapioca, calcium carbonate extraction, ceramic-glazed tile manufacturing, marble and tile, and meat processing.

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More Information on Meghalaya

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