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India By State - Manipur - State Overview

State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Imphal
Area (sq km) 22 327
Population (Census 2001, million) 2.2
Literacy Rate (%) 70.5
GSDP Growth (2000-01 to 2007-08) 5.95%
GSDP at current prices in 2007-08 US$ 1.11 billion
Annual Per Capita Income at current prices in 2007-8 US$ 541.7
National Highways Length (km) 959
Road Length (km) --
Domestic Airports Imphal
Key Industries Khadi and village industry, handlooms and handicrafts, sericulture, food processing, Bamboo processing, Tourism.
Industries with Growth Potential --

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The state in the local language is known as the "land of jewels". It is a hill state situated in the eastern-most corner of Northeast India. The state covers an area of 22,327 sq km and shares its borders with other North-eastern states of Nagaland, Mizoram and Assam and international border with Myanmar.

The capital lies in an oval-shaped valley of approximately 2000 sq km surrounded by Blue Mountains and is at an elevation of 790 metres above sea-level.

There are four major rivers in the state, Barak River, Manipur River, Yu River, and the Lanye River. Almost all the rivers in the state are in the mature stage and, therefore, deposit their sediment load in the Loktak Lake.

Physiographically, Manipur may be characterised in two distinct physical regions- an outlaying area of rugged hills and narrow valleys, an inner area of flat plan, with all associated land forms these two area are not only distinct in respect of physical features but are also conspicuous with regard to various flora and fauna.

The natural vegetation occupies an area of about 14,365 km2 which is almost 64% of the total geographical area of the state. The vegetation is of a large variety of different plants ranging from short and tall grasses, reeds and bamboos to trees of various species.

The climate is largely influenced by the topography of the hilly region. Lying 790 meters above sea level, Manipur is wedged between hills on all sides. The state enjoys a generally amiable climate, though the winters can be a little chilly. The temperature in the summer doesn't usually get above 32 degree C and in the winters the temperature often falls below zero, bring snow and frost.

The state is drenched in rains from May until mid-October. It receives an average annual rainfall of 1467.5mm

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Total population 2.2
Male Population (million) 1.1
Female Population (million) 1.1
Population growth rate 1991-2001 (%) 24.9
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) 974
Literacy Rate (%) 70.5
Male (%) 80.3
Female (%) 60.5
Birth Rate (Per 1,000 persons) 14.6

Manipur has a population of 2,388,634 of which 58.9% live in the valley and the remaining 41.1% in the hilly region.

The official languages of the state are Manipuri and English, however there are also over 15 tribal languages spoken throughout the state.The majority of the state follows Hinduism with over 47% being Hindu; Christianity is the second largest religion in the state with 34% of the population being Christian. Islam constitutes 8% of the population and Sikhism and other religions make up the remaining 11%.

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At current prices, the total GSDP of Manipur was about US$ 1.11 billion in 2007-08. This was an average GSDP growth rate of 5.95 per cent from 1999-2000 to 2007-08. The main contributors to the GSDP are the primary and tertiary sectors with a contribution of around 65 per cent of the total GSDP. Within the primary sector, agriculture and allied activities have registered the highest growth during this period.


In 2007-08, the total Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) of Manipur at current prices was about US$ 1.25 billion. The NSDP grew 8.9 per cent over an 8 year period from 1999-2000 to 2007-08.

The tertiary sector, in 2007-08, contributed 56.6 per cent to the state's GSDP at current prices, followed by the primary sector at 35.0 per cent. The primary sectors growth was due to the contribution of agriculture, forestry, and fishing. It recorded a growth of 6.9 per cent between 1999-2000 and 2007-08.

The secondary sector's share in GSDP was 8.3 per cent in 2007-08 vis--Vis 7.3 per cent in 1999-2000. This growth is driven by registered and un-registered manufacturing, which registered a growth of 7.6 per cent between 1999- 2000 and 2007-08.

The states per capita GSDP was US$ 541.7 in 2007-08, the per capita GSDP saw an increase at a CAGR of 7.1 percent between 1999-2000 and 2007-08. The state has abundant natural resources that offer potential for the development of the infrastructure and industrial sectors. The Manipur Industrial Development Corporation Limited (MANIDCO) and small industries Development Organisation (SIDO) are responsible for industrial development in the state.

The key industries that have been identified are Khadi and Village industry, Handlooms and Handicrafts, Sericulture, Food processing, Bamboo processing and tourism.

As of December 2008 the outstanding investment in the state was US$ 2.0 billion, the electricity sector accounted for about 87% of the states total outstanding investments.

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Physical Infrastructure


The state has three national highways. The highways connect Imphal with Dimapur in the neighbouring state of Nagaland. From Imphal it also runs for another 110 km South East to the international border town of Moreh on the Indo- Myanmar border.

The government of India has a trilateral agreement with Thailand and Myanmar to construct a trans- Asian highway connecting India, through Manipur, to the two countries. The state transport services are provided for by the Manipur State Road Transport Corporation (MSRSTC).


The state of Manipur has a domestic airport at Imphal which is located about 8 km from the heart of the city. There are development plans currently being undertaken to upgrade the airport to an international airport. Developments include a new terminal building and cold-storage facilities.


Dimapur is the only major railway, which links Manipur to the rest of India, which is situated in Nagaland. There is construction underway for a railway line on the Manipur -Assam border connecting Imphal with the rest of India by 2012-14.


In March 2009, Manipur had a total installed power generation capacity of 50.9 MW, all of it controlled by the state. Of the 50.9 MW 45.5MW is thermal and 5.4 MW of renewable energy sources.

There are plans on the table for a joint venture between two key players in the power industry, Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited (SJVNL) and National Hydroelectric Power Corporation Limited (NHPC), to set up a mega hydro electric power project at Tipaimukh with an investment of US$ 2 billion. The project should, when completed, have six generating units of 250 MW each totalling to 1,500 MW.

Telecom Infrastructure

In August 2009 the state had 11654 internet and broadband subscribers. Along with that there were 54 telephone exchanges with 48,245 telephone connections. There are also 697 post offices and two telegraph offices serving the population. The main telcom operators in the state are BSNL and Bharti Airtel.

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Urban Infrastructure

Two US$ 11 million projects for Imphal have been sanctioned under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). The projects have been sanctioned to be completed between 2007-08 and 2009-10 with key development areas being solid waste management and preservation of water bodies. The Manipur government has commissioned for a sewage treatment plant to be built at Lamphlpet the cost of which will be US$ 4.6 Million. Another sewerage infrastructure project costing US$ 29.3 million is being executed at Imphal.


The number of educational institutions in the state has increased over the last 60 years from 538 in 1950-51 to over 4222 in 2004-05. Of which 4,089 are schools, 62 colleges, 69 colleges for professional education and two universities.

The education system is run by the state government who have assigned four sub-entities to look after each level of the educational system. The state literacy level is higher than the all the all India average and stands at 70.5%, female literacy is a concern for the state as it is at a current low of 60.5%, Male literacy levels are at a very healthy 80.3%.

The government have introduced plans to tackle the section of the population that is non-literate. In March 2007 260'000 persons were enrolled on the Total Literacy Campaign (TLC) and 260,000 enrolled on the follow up Post Literacy Programme

Health Infrastructure

The health infrastructure compromises of 13 hospitals, 72 primary health centres, 420 primary health sub-centres, 16 community health centres and 20 dispensaries as of 2008. According to the Ministry of Health and Family welfare economic survey 2008-09 there was 1 hospital per 4,660 of the population, 1,100 beds per persons, the birth rate was 14.6 and death rate 4.5 per thousand persons, infant mortality rate was 11 per thousand live births. There are many health schemes run by the government which are aimed at improving the health infrastructure. Schemes such as: National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP), National Leprosy Control Programme (NCLP), National T.B Control Programme (NTCP), Maternal Child health-cum-expanded programme on immunization amongst many others.

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Industrial Infrastructure

The state is currently going through a development process and industry is a major area of focus for the government. The Nilakuthi food park is planned to be completed by the end of 2010 at Nilakuthi. The park will host 40-50 food processing units for which common facilities will be provided. The integrated Infrastructural Development Project (IID) is a government of India sanctioned project with a total cost of US$ 1.3 million.

Another project with a cost of US$ 3.2 million has been approved by the Government of India to build the export promotion industrial park. There are also plans to build two trade centres in Moreh and Imphal and a Industrial Growth Centre in Chingaren.


Manipur is under going major infrastructural revamp with over US$1.9 million being invested in the refurbishment of the infrastructure sector. The majority of the investment, over 91 percent, has been made in the power sector with focus being on power generation and distribution. Other areas that have attracted investment are railway and air transport sectors.

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More Information on Manipur

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