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India By State - Madhya Pradesh - State Overview

State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Bhopal
Area (sq km) 308,000
Population (2001) 60.3 million
Literacy Rate (%) 64.1
Human Development Index 0.394 (All India rank 12th)
NSDP (US$ billion) 30.7
NSDP growth (%) (10 years) 8.8
Per capita income (US$) 519
National highways length (km) 4670
Rail length (km) 5,900
Domestic airport Bhopal, Indore
Key industries Cement
Edible oil
Industries with growth potential Automobiles

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Madhya Pradesh, when translated into Hindi literally means "central province" and is located almost in the middle of India bordered by Gujarat on the west, Rajasthan on the northwest, Uttar Pradesh on the northeast, Chhattisgarh on the east, and Maharashtra on the south.

This is the second largest state in terms of area, with an area of 308,000 sq km, divided among the 45 districts of the state. The State is thickly covered by forests which account for one third of the state's geographical area, and is filled with all types of geographical structures including hills, plains, plateaus, rivers and forests.

Madhya Pradesh is endowed with vast deposits of natural resources like copper ore, limestone, bauxite, granite, etc. A wide range of wood and forest products like tendu leaf, mahua, neem etc. and large number of prominent herbs are also available in abundance. The State has been home to the cultural heritage of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Islam. Innumerable monuments, carved temples, stupas, forts and palaces are dotted all over the State.



Population Demographics

  • Population: 60.39 million
  • Density: 196 per sq. km.
  • Urban Population: 26.67%
  • Literacy Rate: 64.11%
  • Male Literacy: 76.80%
  • Female Literacy: 50.28%
  • Sex Ratio: 920 females to 1000 males
  • Decadal Growth Rate: unknown
  • Religion(s):91.1% Hindu, 6.40% Muslim, 0.9% Jain, 0.3% Christian, 0.3% Buddhists, 0.2% Sikhs

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Madhya Pradesh is ranked amongst the top four states in India for industrial investments. The state recorded a Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of USD 35.4 billion at current price and the growth rate of the state was 9.5 per cent for the same period. The per capita GSDP of Madhya Pradesh was USD US$519 during 2007-08. The Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) of the state during 2004-05 was US$ 30.7 billion at current prices.

NSDP Growth

The Economy of Madhya Pradesh depends mainly on the agricultural sector as more than 80% of the people of the state depend on this sector for their livelihood. The agricultural sector contributes around 24% to the state's economy. The various kinds of crops grown in the state of Madhya Pradesh are rice, pulses, wheat, oilseeds, grams, soybeans, and maize. The state contributes 20% to the total production of pulses in the country, and the total production of food grain was around 14.10 million metric tonnes in 2004- 2005. This sector has given a major boost to the Economy in Madhya Pradesh.

The Economy in the state of Madhya Pradesh also gets its revenue from the forest products sector as the state has a forest cover of around 1.7 million hectares. The various kinds of forest products available in the state are teak wood, sal wood, and bamboos.

The industrial sector contributes 35% to the state's economy. The main industries in the state are telecommunications, information technology, automobiles, and electronics. Madhya Pradesh is the 2nd biggest cement producer in the country for it contributes 13% to the total cement production in India. This sector has contributed a great deal to the growth of the Economy in Madhya Pradesh.

Sectoral contribution to GDP

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Physical Infrastructure

Road Network

Madhya Pradesh, being surrounded by land on all sides, has both Land and Air transport facilities. Extensive rail network go across the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarters for West Central Railway Zone of Indian Railways. Buses and trains cover most of Madhya Pradesh. An extensive road network is also being developed. Madhya Pradesh leads the nation in implementing Gramin Sadak Nirman Pariyojna, a central government aided programme to provide road networks to villages.


Railway is well connected with the rest of India. Almost 425 Trains pass through the State on a daily basis.

A total of 175 Trains pass through the State capital Bhopal alone.

The railway network in Madhya Pradesh primarily falls under the West-Central Railways, which was formed in 2003 and is headquartered in Jabalpur.


There are 5 airports and 25 airstrips. The main international airport is located in Bhopal. Indore Airport has the capability of handling International cargo. Air Transport is at Indore, Bhopal, Jabalpur, Gwalior and Khajuraoo.


The installed electricity generation capacity of Madhya Pradesh is 6,449 MW. 95.66% of Madhya Pradesh's electricity generation capacity is based on Thermal energy with the remaining from Hydel sources. On a per capita basis, electricity consumption in Madhya Pradesh stands at 352 kWh per annum, close to the national average of 355 kWh per annum

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Social Infrastructure


Madhya Pradesh has taken firm initiatives to develop social infrastructure.

To begin, Education is ranking 12th on the Human Development Index (Literacy levels in the state have improved from 44.2% in 1991 to the current level of over 64.1%).

Madhya Pradesh has a vast network of professional and technical institutes.

Educational Institutions


Primary Schools 94 890
Higher Secondary Schools 8 504
Degree Colleges 303
Universities 12
Polytechnic Institutes 158
Industrial Training Institutes 343
Engineering Colleges 159
Medical Colleges 5


There are 48 hospitals, 270 Community Health Centres and 1 149 Primary Health Centres in the state. The State consists of 34 Ayurvedic and 4 Homoeopathic Hospital. The number of in-patient beds in Madhya Pradesh's hospitals is 20,839.

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Industrial Infrastructure

There are 48 hospitals, 270 Community Health Centres and 1 149 Primary Health Centres in the state. The State consists of 34 Ayurvedic and 4 Homoeopathic Hospital. The number of in-patient beds in Madhya Pradesh's hospitals is 20,839.


Indore is a prominent business and industrial centre in Madhya Pradesh. Considered the commercial capital of the state, it is well connected by rail, road and airways. Indore has a population of 1.8 million.

It also has a Special Economic Zone (SEZ) spread over 1,038 hectares of land. The SEZ has attracted investment of over US$ 200 million so far. The industries located in the SEZ include textile, pharmaceuticals, automobile & auto ancillary, metallurgy and leather.

The SEZ also intends to act as a trading and logistics hub. It has a fully operational Internal Container Depot managed by Container Corporation of India (CONCOR).This is a well-developed dry port and is connected by rail and road transport to major destinations in India. Indore is also a potential destination for IT and ITES industries coming to the state.


Bhopal is the capital of Madhya Pradesh with a population of approximately 1.4 million. Bhopal is well connected to Mumbai, Delhi and other major cities across India.

The three industrial growth centres located close to Bhopal are at Pilukhedi, Satlapur and Mandideep. Most of the units in these centres belong to the engineering, fabrication, herbal and agro sectors.


Gwalior is located in the north of Madhya Pradesh. It has a population of about 0.8 million. It is linked well to Delhi and other major cities through rail and road links. Gwalior has industrial growth centres located at Malanpur, Ghirongi and Banmore. The main industries in these centres are: solvent extraction units, leather, food processing and rubber.

Jabalpur Akvn

Jabalpur Akvn is located in the south of the state. The Area Developed is 790 Hectares and has 52 established units. The Major Groups: Raymond, Hindustan Petroleum, PBM and Ayur. The special Infrastructures are a Stone Park and a Food Park.

Rewa Akvn

Rewa Akvn is located in the north of the state. The Area Developed: 273 Hectares and has established 121 units. The main industrial groups present are Birla and Jaypee.

Food Parks

To provide growth to the agro and food processing industry in the state, six food parks are being developed across the state. The main advantage of these parks lies in the availability of common facilities such as analytical and quality control laboratories, cold storages / modified atmosphere cold storages, warehousing facilities and supplementary pollution control facilities. The state government has also provided concessions and subsidies to units locating in these parks.

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More Information on Madhya Pradesh

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