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India By State - Karnataka - State Overview




State Overview

 

Economic Snapshot

Capital Bangaluru
Area (sq km) 191,791
Population (Census 2001, million) 52.7
Literacy Rate (%) 67.04
NSDP (US$ billion) 50.76
Per Capita Income (US$) 1006.3
Exports (US$ million) 9.3
National Highways Length (km) 4396
International Port New Mangalore Port
Karwar Port
International Airports Bengaluru, Mangalore and New Bengaluru International Airport
Domestic Airports Hubli, Mangalore, Belgaum, Mysore, and Bengaluru
Key Industries Information Technology
Electronics
Biotechnology
Tourism
Apparels
Automotives
Engineering
Aeronautics
Mineral-based
Agro-based
Leather

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Geography

Located in the southern part of India, Karnataka is divided in to 29 districts and has an area of 191, 791 sq km that accounts for 5.83 per cent of India's geographical area. Karnataka is the 8th largest State within India and is bordered by the Arabian Sea to the west, Goa to the northwest, Maharashtra to the north, Andhra Pradesh to the east, Tamil Nadu to the southeast, and Kerala to the southwest. Bengaluru is the administrative and financial capital of the state. Bengaluru along with Belgaum, Gulbarga, Hubli-Dharwad, Mangalore and Mysore are among the large cities in the state in terms of population.

 

Population

Population Demographics

  • Population: 52.73 million
  • Density: 275 per sq. km.
  • Urban Population: 33.98%
  • Literacy Rate: 67.04%
  • Male Literacy: 76.29%
  • Female Literacy: 57.45%
  • Sex Ratio: 964 females to 1000 males
  • Decadal Growth Rate: 17.51
  • Religion(s): 83% Hindu, 11% Muslim, 4% Christian, 1% Other

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Economy

Karnataka is one of the most economically progressive States within India. Employment and per capita income levels are high and almost the entire population has access to education and health facilities. Although agriculture is the mainstay of the population, the services and industrial sectors have shown significant growth attracting major companies from all over the world. Today, the services sector contributes the maximum to the state's income.

With overall GDP growth of 56.2 percent and per capital GDP growth of 43.9 percent in the last decade, the State has the highest decadal growth rate within the country, and its per capita income currently stands at 6th place.

Bengaluru, Mysore and Mangalore are the 3 major cities of Karnataka, with over 40% of the urban population of the state.

Bengaluru - is the largest urban metropolis of the state

Mysore - is emerging as an alternative destination to Bengaluru, service and tourism sectors

Mangalore - with its ports, presence of educational institutes, hospitals and banks is a rapidly emerging economy in services, logistics and manufacturing.

The Sectoral contribution to the State Gross Domestic Product of Karnataka state is highly impressive. The primary sector that is constituted by agriculture, forestry, and mining contributed about 16 per cent to the GSDP in 2008-09. The secondary sector, such as manufacturing, construction, and utilities constituted 29 per cent to GSDP. Trade, logistics, real estate, communication, finance coming under the tertiary sector accounted for 55 per cent, US$31.6 billion of the GSDP during 2005.

At the end of 2004, the rate of unemployment in Karnataka was 4.94 per cent compared to the national average of 5.99 per cent. The inflation rate in Karnataka for fiscal year 2006-07, was 4.4 per cent compared to the national average of 4.7 per cent.

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Physical Infrastructure

The Government of Karnataka, realizing the importance of infrastructure, is giving top priority to infrastructural projects.

Road

Karnataka has a total network of over 52 000 km, 4396 km of national highways (NH), 28 311 km of state highways (SH) and 19 801 km of district roads.This state is well connected with all six neighboring states and other parts of India through 14 National Highways.

Road Type

Length

National Highway 4396
State Highway 28,311
District Roads 19,801

Railways

Karnataka has over 3 172 km of total rail track length. The head quarter of the South Western Zone, is at Hubli. Various parts of the state come under the South Western zone. The remaining part is under Southern Railways Zone. The coastal Karnataka is covered by the Konkan railway network.

Ports

Karnataka has a vast coastline. The coastline along the eastern shore of the Arabian Sea stretches 300 km between Mangalore in Dakshina Kannada district and Karwar in Uttara Kannada district. Karnataka has two major and eight minor ports.

New Mangalore Port

This port handled 403 975 tonnes of traffic in the fiscal year 2006-07. The port also handled 1015 vessels including 18 cruise vessels during the year 2006-07. The inland water transport within the state is not well developed.

Minor Ports

Tadri, Honnavar, Bhatkal, Kundapur, Hangarkatta, Malpe, Padubidri, Old Mangalore.

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Airports

The International Tech Park is located in Whitefield, 18 Km east from the city centre and a mere 12 km from the Bangalore airport. The Park is also well linked through the city's extensive network of roads and highways.

Air Transport is a fast expanding sector in the country. Karnataka has airports at Bangaluru, Mangalore, Hubli, Belgaum, Hampi and Bellary with international operations from Bangaluru and Mangalore airports. Airports at Mysore, Gulbarga, Bijapur, Hassan and Shimoga are expected to be operational by the end of 2007. Major airlines such as Kingfisher Airlines and Air Deccan are based in Bangaluru.

Communication Infrastructure

The leading companies are engaged to establish telecommunications network, basic telephony services (wire and wireless) and networking for telecommunications equipment.

Karnataka has more than 20 million cellular subscribers with 14,000 telecom towers. The state has a strong communications network and the second highest number of Internet subscribers in the country.

The Entire State is networked via Optic Fibre Cables (OFC) by the State-run BSNL (formerly DOT) as well as private companies like Bharti, Reliance, VSNL and TATA Tele Services.

Last Mile Access is provided by BSNL as well as TATA Tele Services in various parts of the State. Bharti and Reliance, provide the Last Mile Access directly to the customer in all major cities in Karnataka.

Power

The Karnataka Government is focussing on building power plants based on thermal, nuclear, naphtha etc. So far, power projects totalling around 8000MW in the long and short term projects have been sanctioned. Transmission and distribution aspects also are being given due importance.

Distribution/Supply:
Electricity Supply Companies (ESCOMs)

  • Bengaluru Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM)
  • Mangalore Electricity Supply Company (MESCOM)
  • Hubli Electricity Supply Company (HESCOM)
  • Gulbarga Electric Supply Company (GESCOM)
  • Chamundeshwari Electric Supply Corporation (CESC)

In 2008-09, the state had an installed power generation capacity of 8,083 MW. State-owned hydro and thermal plants contributed 5,616 MW, and IPPs and non-conventional power generators contributed 2,017 MW.

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Social Infrastructure

Education

Karnataka has 11 Universities, 133 Medical Colleges, 134 Engineering Colleges, 712 General Colleges, and 199 Diploma colleges, 68 MCA Colleges, 61 MBA Colleges, two Universities of Agricultural Sciences at Bengaluru (1965) and Dharwad Kannada University at Hampi.

Premier Institutes in the State

  • Indian Statistical Institute (1978)
  • National Law School of India University (1987)
  • Institute for Social and Economic Change (1972)
  • Indian Institute of Management (1972)
  • Indian Institute of Science (1911)

Health

The Government emphasizes medical research, collaboration with Industry and healthcare operations and a self sustaining health cluster including hospital, Wellness, recreation and residential.

There are 68 hospitals and 26 of which are government owned. There are 2193 numbers of primary health centres, 622 primary health units/ dispensaries, 8143 sub-centres and over 50,000 beds in the state. The Government of Karnataka has taken some of the major initiatives to improve the state of health in Karnataka.

  • Three-tier health infrastructure comprising primary health centres, health units, community health centres and sub centres.
  • The government policy is to establish a primary health centre for an average of 30,000 people, a dispensary for 15,000- 20,000 people and a sub-centre for 5,000 people

Industrial Infrastructure

The Government in Karnataka is promoting the growth of Special Economic Zone (SEZ) with several sector specific SEZs, e.g. for Pharma & Biotech, Food processing and Agro-based industries at various locations in the state and Textile SEZ at Hassan and Coastal SEZ at Mangalore.

Key Industrial clusters

  • IT/ITES cluster in Electronic City and Whitefield (Bengaluru)
  • Biotech Park/Cluster in Electronic City, Bengaluru
  • Machine Tool cluster at Peenya Industrial Estate
  • Textile cluster at Doddaballapur
  • Foundry cluster at Belgaum
  • Industrial Valve cluster at Hubli - Dharwad
  • Auto Component cluster at Shimoga

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More Information on Karnataka

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