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India By State - Haryana - State Overview




State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Chandigarh
Area (sq km) 44212 (2006-07)
Population (Census 2001, million) 21
Literacy Rate (%) 67.9
Human Development Index 0.509 (all India rank 5th)
NSDP (US$ billion) 30.11 billion (2006-07)
NSDP Growth (1999-2000 to 2006-07) 15.47 per cent (average annual)
Per Capita Income (US$) 862.90 (2006)
Exports (US$ million) 2,666
National Highways Length (km) 1,479
Rail Length (km)s 1,595
International Airport Indira Gandhi International Airport, Delhi
Domestic Airports Chandigarh
Key Industries Automotive and auto components, Bicycles, Ceramics and construction material, Electronic Goods, Food products, Textiles, IT/ITES, Oil Refining, Sanitary-ware, Scientific instruments and Stainless steel
Industries with Growth Potential Agro-based and Food Processing
Electronics and Information & Communications Technology
Automobiles and Automotive Components
Handloom, Hosiery, Textiles and Garments Manufacturing
Export Oriented Units
Petrochemicals
Property Development and Retailing

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Geography

Haryana is a state in northern India. It has Uttar Pradesh (UP) on its eastern border, Punjab on its western border, Uttarakhand, Himachal Pradesh & Shivalik Hills on its northern border and Delhi, Rajasthan and Aravali Hills on its southern border The State has a total of 81 cities & towns and 6,759 villages. For administrative purposes the state is divided into four divisions - Ambala, Rohtak, Gurgaon and Hissar. There are 21 districts, 47 sub-divisions within the State.

An area of 1,553 km2 is covered by forest. Haryana has four main geographical features.

  • The Yamuna-Ghaggar plain forming the largest part of the state
  • The Shivalik Hills to the northeast
  • Semi-desert sandy plain to the southwest
  • The Aravalli Range in the south

The climate of Haryana is similar to other states of India lying in the northern plains. It is very hot in summer (up to a high of 50 deg Celsius) and cold in winters (down to a low of 1 deg Celsius). The hottest months are May and June and the coldest being December and January. Rainfall is varied, with the Shivalik Hills region being the wettest and the Aravali Hills region being the driest. About 80% of the rainfall occurs in the monsoon season (July-September) and sometimes causes local flooding.

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Population

The state covers 1.37 per cent of the total geographical area, and accounts for less than two per cent of India’s population. The population of Haryana, according to the 2001 census, is 21,144,000, with 11,364,000 males and 9,781,000 females. The population density is 477 people/km2. Haryana, along with neighbouring Punjab, has a skewed sex ratio at 861, with many more men than women. Selective abortion of female foetuses has a very high provenance, reflecting a widespread preference for the male child.

Hindus make up about 84% of the population, Sikhs 15% Muslims 1%, Jains 0.3%, Christians 0.1% and Buddhists 0.03%. Muslims are mainly in the Mewat district, while Sikhs are mostly in the districts adjoining Punjab. Agriculture and related industries have been the backbone of the local economy. These days the state is seeing a massive influx of immigrants from across the nation, primarily from Bihar, Bengal and Nepal.

Population Demographics

  • Population: 21144564
  • MALES: 11363953
  • FEMALES: 9780611
  • SEX RATIO(females/1000 males): 861
  • DENSITY OF POPULATION (Persons/ Square Km): 477
  • URBAN POPULATION %: 29%
  • LITERACY RATE (census 2001) in %: 67.9%
  • MALE LITERACY in %: 78.5%
  • MALE LITERATE in numbers: 7480209
  • FEMALE LITERACY in %: 55.7%
  • FEMALE LITERATE in numbers:
  • BIRTH RATE (PER 1000)(2002)P: 26.5
  • DEATH RATE (PER 1000): '7.0
  • NSDP at current prices (2002-2003)* Rs Crores: 57937 Rs Crores *(2002-2003)
  • PER CAPITA NSDP (2002-03) at current prices Rs: 26632 in Rs crore *(2002-2003)

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Economy

Being located in the National Capital Region (NCR), Haryana has emerged as a prominent trade and consumption centre. In the recent years, the parts of Haryana around Delhi have witnessed a spurt in the economic activities and Gurgaon has emerged as one of the most vibrant and principal suburban township of Delhi.

Haryana is a potential location for investment for a range of industries, as the State’s economic performance is driven by all three sectors. The State’s GSDP grew an impressive 15.2% between the period 1999-00 and 2007-08 to reach US $ 39.2 billion. The Tertiary sector is without a doubt the most rapidly developing sector within the State, driven by growth in sub-sectors such as IT and ITES. The tertiary sector contributed in the year 2008-09 with 55.2 percent share in the GSDP and if we compare it with the figures of the fiscal year 1999-2000, there has been a notable rise of 18.1 per cent.

The growth of the Secondary sector has been driven by manufacturing in sub sectors like automobile and auto-components, light engineering and textiles among others. It has over 1,100 big and medium industrial units, chief among them are Maruti Udyog, Bharti Telecom, Hero Honda, Sony, Whirlpool, Escorts, Benetton, TDT Copper, Modi Alcatel and Carrier Aircon.

In India, there are around 250 large and medium original equipment manufacturing units of which Haryana has about 50 such units. In the year 2005-06, it exports stood at $3.5 billion. The state government has set up an Export Promotion Board under the chairmanship of the chief secretary to promote exports. It is perceived to be one of the most lucrative destinations for making investment as there is huge potential for the state to grow.

The primary sector however saw its share fall to 23.1 per cent in 2008-09 from 31.9 per cent in 1999-00. 70 percent of the population of Haryana is engaged in the agriculture sector.

The state accounts for two-third of passenger cars, 50 per cent of tractors, 60 per cent of motor cycles, 50 per cent of refrigerators and 25 per cent of sanitary-ware manufactured in the country. It has several units of small scale industries that account for about 25 percent of the state's production. They are mainly engaged in the manufacture of leather and fur products, food items, metal products, and wooden furniture.

SSI units in Haryana have a 20 per cent share in the country’s total exports of scientific instruments. They cater to almost 60 per cent demand for ammunition boxes of the defence forces and 60 per cent of the woollen blanket needs of the Indian Army. Another thing that needs a mention is that these small scale industry units produce the largest number of electrical mixers and gas stoves in the country.

Gurgaon enjoys the competitive advantage of being situated at such a strategic location on the Delhi-Jaipur National highway sharing close proximity to the Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi. Its fantastic connectivity and excellent infrastructure has fascinated many foreign investors and attracted many high-value projects involving foreign collaboration. Investments have come in from automotive, automobile parts, telecommunication equipment, electrical goods, software development, hardware, sports goods, rubber products, textiles, light engineering goods, pharmaceuticals, food items, consumer durables, footwear and chemicals. Other important cities in Haryana are Karnal and Ambala. Karnal is the centre for agro-based and handloom industries. Ambala is known for its hosiery and scientific and surgical instruments.

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Physical Infrastructure

The state government lays great emphasis on building a sound physical infrastructure with a good network of rail, road and air.

Road

Haryana is a trend setter in the field of passenger transport with nearly 1 500 km of national highways 1, 2, 8, 10 and 22 pass through the state.

In fact, it has a total road length of 23 684 kilometres. This includes the highway connecting Delhi and the state's important business centres.

The remotest parts of the state are linked with metalled roads. The Haryana roadway is one of the biggest state road transport undertakings in the country. Its modern bus fleet of 3,864 buses covers a distance of 1.15 million Kilometres per day. It was the first State in the country to introduce luxury video coaches.

The high priority is given by the Government to surface transport and connectivity inland container depot and express highways. The state has already conceived one mega project for the construction of Kundli-Manesar-Palwal Expressway. A number of projects are underway to strengthen the road infrastructure in the state.

Airport

The domestic airport is located in its capital in Chandigarh and the Indira Gandhi International Airport lies at a distance of 20 minutes drive from Gurgaon. There are civil aerodromes at Pinjore, Karnal, Hisar, Bhiwani and Narnaul.

Railways

The main railways routes are: Amritsar-Delhi, Rewari-Ahmedabad, Bhiwani-Rohtak-Delhi, Ambala-Ferozepur, Delhi-Ferozepur, Kalka-Jodhpur, Kalka-Howrah, Amritsar-Howrah and Delhi-Shimla. Haryana is well connected to the network oh Indian railways and the main railway routes connecting the state are Amritsar-Delhi, Rewari-Ahmedabad, Bhiwani-Rohtak-Delhi, Ambala-Ferozepur, Delhi-Ferozepur, Kalka-Jodhpur, Kalka-Howrah, Amritsar-Howrah and Delhi-Shimla.

The route of the Delhi Metro has been extended to cater to the Gurgaon district and besides this; the government of Haryana has also taken up a project for providing a rail link from Rohtak to Rewari. There is a proposal to provide a rail corridor linking the major satellite towns of Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh and Kundli with New Delhi.

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Water

Water is available as Haryana is a land of canals. It has tapped its ground water resources to maximum. Life irrigation schemes pump sets, and water channels supply adequate amount of water to the fields and industries. The State has already launched an ambitious programme of bircklining the water courses. The Sutlej-Haryana link canal will further add to Haryana's prosperity.

Power

Haryana is the first state to achieve 100% rural electrification way back in 1970. Energy is mainly generated from thermal power. Now, Energy is mainly generated from thermal power.

The installed generation capacity as on 31st March 2006 was 4,033 MW, most of it being Thermal power

  • The Major consumer of electricity is the domestic sector accounting for about 78% of the power consumption
  • The Per Capita consumption of electricity is 660 kWh, much higher than the All-India average of 390.3 kWh
  • To increase the Availability of Power, the Government is encouraging investments from the private sector for capacity generation, improvement in operational efficiency and extension of distribution network.

Telecommunication

It is a state with a lot of telecommunication facilities. Haryana Government has its own state-wide area network by which all government offices of 20 districts and 127 blocks across the state are connected with each other thus making it the first SWAN of the country.

The state has 1,026 Telephone exchanges, 2329 Post offices in the rural areas and 317 in urban areas.

This network system would easily cover major towns like Faridabad, Gurgaon, Bahadurgarh and Kundli. The major newspapers of Haryana are Punjab Kesari, Jag Bani, Dainik Jagran, The Tribune, Amar Ujala, Hindustan Times, Dainik Bhaskar, The Times of India and Hari-Bhumi. Government of HARYANA has decided to provide plot areas in all four divisions for "Press Bhawan". Haryana Press Club has been authorised to build & operate those press bhawans, by Haryana government.

The government has committed to grant $22.5 million to set up State Wide Area Network (SWAN).

The State Government has enacted the Haryana Industrial Promotion Act 2005 for industrial development. The industrial infrastructure in Haryana is being developed through state agencies like HSIIDC and Haryana Urban Development Authority (HUDA) as well as private players.

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Social Infrastructure

Educational

Haryana had a huge expansion since its inception. SCERT Haryana was established in April 1979. It provided new dimensions to school education. The Government endeavour was to make educational facilities available to the poorest children.

32 primary schools, 69 middle schools and 101 high schools were upgraded to middle, high and senior secondary respectively during the year 2004-05. Now accessibility to schooling is available within the radius of 1.10 km, 1.38 km, 1.66 km and 2.79 km at the primary, middle, high and senior secondary levels respectively.

The Haryana government provides free education to women up to the Bachelor's Degree level.

Leading institutes for Technical and Engineering Education in Haryana are NIT (National Institute of Technology) Kurukshetra, Deenbandhu Chhotu Ram University Of Science and Technology, YMCA Institute of Engineering. Earlier NIT Kurukshetra was famous by the name Regional Engineering College, Kurukshetra. There are six universities in the state.

Technical education and management studies are provided by Maharishi Dayanand University at Rohtak have a University Institute Of Eng & Tech, University Campus named as U.I.E, ROHTAK, Kurukshetra University at Kurukshetra, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science & Technology at Hisar and Chaudhary Devi Lal University at Sirsa. Chaudhary Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural University at Hisar is one of the biggest agricultural universities in Asia. It is engaged in education, research and development related to agriculture. Bhagat Phool Singh Women University is the latest situated at Khanpur Kalan Sonipat.

The Holy Land where the University stands was first transformed into a centre of learning in 1936 by Bhagat Phool Singh Ji when he started a Gurukul for girls. The Gurukul was opened after he opened a karakul for boys in 1919 in Bhainswal Kalan which today is the South Campus of the University. The Gurukul, started with only three students, they grew in size, stature and reputation with time and in November 2006, the Haryana Legislative Assembly passed a Legislative Notification; vide no. 31/2006 making the Gurukul a full-fledged State University.

On an average, 6, 86,706 students seek admission at the primary school level each year in Haryana.

There are medical colleges in Rohtak, Mullana and Agroha. Pt. B.D. Sharma PGIMS Rohtak is a premier post-graduate medical institute in North India offering courses in major specialties and super specialties of medicine. There is also the Management Development Institute in Gurgaon, which is amongst the premier management institutes of India. The Institute named The Technological Institute of Textile and science's come into existence in 1947 a very well named college in Haryana in the field of Textiles.

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Health care and medical

This state has a strong network of health care facilities. The State Health Department provides quality health care and medical services at affordable prices.

There are about 46 hospitals and dispensaries, 91 community health centres, 427 primary health centres, 2,465 sub-centres and 20 tuberculosis centres in the state of Haryana. The per capita expenditure on health in the state has increased from $4.11 in 2004-05 to $5.41 in 2006-07.

By the year 2010, Gurgaon is expected to set up 18 new hospitals equipped with all the state of art facilities.

Health Indicators

Birth Rate (2007)* 23.9
Death Rate (2007)* 6.5
Infant Mortalitly Rate** 21

Life expectancy at birth (years; 2006-11)

Male 65.5
Female 70

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More Information on Haryana

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