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India By State - Delhi - State Overview

State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Area (sq km) 1483
Population (Census 2001, million) 13.8
Literacy Rate (%) 81.67
NSDP Growth (1999-2000 to 2007-08) 14.66 per cent CAGR
NSDP at current prices in 2007-08 US$ 32.81 billion
Annual Per Capita Income at current prices in 2007-08 US$ 2136
National Highways Length (km) 72
International airport Indira Gandhi International Airport
Key Industries BFSI, IT and ITes, Tourism, food processing, construction and engineering, SSI: textiles, handlooms, printing and publishing.
Industries with Growth Potential Consultancy, training of skilled main power and marketing related industries.


Delhi is the capital of the Republic of India and also a state for administrative purposes. It covers an area of 1,483 sq km and is one of the largest metropolis in the country.

It is home to the Union Government of the country and the state government offices. Delhi is the epicentre of international politics, trade, culture and literature in India.

The two prominent major topographical features of the city are the river Yamuna and (terminal part of) the Aravalli hill ranges. The Delhi state is divided into165 administrative villages under nine districts. The Union Government's area is managed by the New Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC).

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Population density (persons per sq km) 9,340
Total population (million) 13.8
Male population (million) 7.60
Female population (million) 6.20
Decadal population growth rate (%) 47.02
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) 821
Literacy rate (%) 81.67
Male (%) 87.33
Female (%) 74.71

Average life expectancy


Male (years) 67.40
Female (years) 71.10

The majority of the population, 64%, practise Hinduism. Islam is the second largest religion with 30.9% of the population being Muslim. The rest of the population are a mix of Christianity, Sikhism, Animism and Buddhism.

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At current prices, the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Delhi for 2007-08 was US$ 35.81 billion. Between 1999-2000 and 2007-08, the average annual GSDP growth rate was 14.8 per cent.

The growth was driven by the expansion of the services sector. Banking and insurance, real estate, trade, tourism and communications were driving the progress in the sector.

The Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) of Delhi was about US$ 32.81 billion in 2007-08. The average NSDP growth rate between 1999-2000 and 2007-08 was about 14.66 per cent.

Delhi's economy is unique as it is dependent on commerce and trade more than on manufacturing and agriculture. In 1996, the Supreme Court of India ordered over 90,000 industrial units to relocate outside the state in order to control increasing levels of pollution. Consequently, the state now is left with very small scale industries which are mostly non-polluting. In 2007-08, at US$ 28.3 billion, the tertiary sector contributed 99 per cent to the GSDP of Delhi at constant prices.

The per capita GSDP of Delhi increased almost 2.4 times from US$ 901 in 1999-2000 to US$ 2,136 in 2007-08. Per capita GSDP recorded CAGR of 10.1 per cent between 1999-2000 and 2007-08.

The location advantage, policy incentives and infrastructure in the state support investments in sectors such as IT/ITeS, banking and financial services industry (BFSI) and tourism activities.

The Government is also encouraging activities allied to industry, such as consultancy, training of skilled manpower through vocational training programmes and entrepreneurial development programmes.

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Physical Infrastructure


Delhi has a total road length of over 30,923 km. According to the National Highway Authority of India (NHAI), about 72 km of National Highways run through the state.

The Finance bills of the last few years have laid increasing emphasis on the transport sector. Considering the need for improvement of the facilities, the sector has been receiving significant financial allocation.

Action has also been taken to implement the Delhi Integrated Multi Modal Transport System (DIMTS).

The existing road network is being upgraded and express highways and freeways being constructed along key routes in Delhi and the NCR. The "Golden Quadrilateral" project of the NHAI directly connects Delhi to other major markets and cities of the country.


Delhi is well connected by rail network to other parts of India. A significant part of trade is supported by the strong railway link. Delhi is a major junction in the rail network of India and has direct links to the major cities of India.

There are three main railway stations at: New Delhi, Old Delhi and Hazrat Nizamuddin.


The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) was registered in 1995 under the Companies Act, 1956, for development of Delhi Mass Rapid Transit System (MRTS).

DMRC has equal equity participation from the Government of India and Government of National Capital Territory of Delhi (GNCTD).

The objectives of the Delhi metro rail are as follows:

  • To cover the whole of Delhi with a metro rail network by the year 2021.
  • Delhi metro to be of world-class standards in terms of safety, reliability, punctuality, comfort and customer satisfaction.
  • Delhi metro to operate on commercial lines, obviating the need for government support.

Air Travel

The IndiraGandhi International Airport (IGIL) is located about 16 km miles from the New Delhi city centre. The international airport at Delhi is one of the busiest in the world and expansion plans are being implemented to enhance aircraft and passenger handling capacity. Key features of expansion plans: The planned ultimate design capacity of the airport is100 million passengers per annum (mppa).

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As a part of preparation for the Commonwealth Games 2010, Phase-1 of the project is planned to have capacity of 37 mppa by March 2010. Plans include construction of an integrated passenger terminal (Terminal-3) catering to both, domestic and international passengers.


As of March 2009, Delhi had a total installed power generation capacity of 920.4 MW, which is wholly controlled by the State Government. The capacity owned by state utilities comprised about 35 per cent of coal-based power plants and 65 per cent of gas-based power plants. In addition, NTPC provides 705 MW to the state. At over 1,265 kWh, Delhi has one of the highest per capita electricity consumption among all the states in India.

The Delhi Vidyut Board was set up in 1997 under the Electricity Act, 1948, and it replaced the Delhi Electricity Supply Undertaking. BSES Yamuna Power Limited acquired a controlling interest in two of the distribution companies, viz., South-West Delhi Electricity Distribution Company Limited and Central-East Delhi Electricity Distribution Company Limited, and the Tata Power Company took management control of the third distribution company viz., North-Northwest Delhi Distribution Company Limited.


According to the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI), the Delhi circle had a total of 15.4 million cellular phone subscribers as on March 31, 2009, accounting for 5.81 per cent share in the overall cellular base of the country. The state had 580,000 broadband subscribers as of 2008.

Urban Infrastructure

Under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), projects costing US$129.6 million have been sanctioned for Delhi. The projects have been sanctioned for completion between 2008-09 and 2009-10. The key projects focus on traffic management plan for designated areas, sewerage system improvement and urban renewal plans along with heritage conservation.

According to the Delhi 2021 Master Plan, special emphasis has been laid on improved solid-waste management policies. The short-term goals are: capacity building with respect to financial services and performance management, effecting trial runs of collection and waste-reduction schemes, developing transport, land-fill sites and transfer stations for waste and focussing on bio-medical and hazardous waste management program.

With respect to traffic management the focus in the master plan is on developing integrated multi-modal transport-system, creating infrastructure for alternate transport, e.g. bicycles, creating an environment for public transport prioritization by customers, and improving suburban railway with technology upgrade.

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Social Infrastructure


Delhi had a literacy rate of 81.67 per cent as against the national average of 65 per cent as per the Census 2001. In 2001, the male literacy figure stood at 87.33 per cent, while female literacy was at 74.71 per cent.

During 1991-2001, male and female literacy rates have improved by 5.36 per cent and 8.01 per cent, respectively. The gap between male and female literacy rates also has come down from 15.02 per cent (in 1991) to 12.37 per cent in 2001. As of 2007-08, there were 51 pre-primary schools, 2,584 primary schools, 653 middle level schools and 1,759 senior secondary/ secondary schools in Delhi.

At the intermediate college level, courses in the science, arts and commerce streams are offered. Vocational courses are offered in the fields of agriculture, engineering and technology, home science, paramedical, business and commerce, and humanities.

Health Infrastructure

Delhi had eight primary healthcare centres (four to six beds) as of March 2007, with 79 beds. There were 547 allopathy-based dispensaries, 198 ayurveda-based and 133 homeopathy-based.

Delhi has approximately 713 hospitals that classify as authorised centres for providing medical services across allopathy, ayurvedic, unani systems.


Industrial Infrastructure

On the industrial infrastructure front, the State has taken a number of development initiatives to achieve consistent economic growth. The State Government has initiated a set of prestigious projects including those in industrial infrastructure for the specific sectors, through the Delhi State Industrial and Infrastructure Corporation Limited (DSIIDC).

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation Limited (DMRC) has conceptualized and developed a world-class IT Park complex comprising IT Park Block-1 (Operational), IT Park Block-2 , which is ready for occupancy and IT Park Block-3 (yet to be constructed). The complex is situated very close to Shastri Park metro station.

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More Information on Delhi

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