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State Overview

Economic Snapshot

Capital Itanagar
Area (sq km) 83 743
Population (Census 2001, million) 1.1
Literacy Rate (%) 54.3
GSDP Growth (2000-01 to 2007-08) 13.8 %
GSDP at current prices in 2007-08 US$ 916.1 million
Annual Per Capita Income at current prices in 2007-8 US$ 768.56
National Highways Length (km) 1992
Road Length (km) 15091
Domestic Airports Tezu
Key Industries Arts and Crafts, Weaving, Cane and Bamboo, Carpet Weaving, Wood Carving, Ornaments, Tourism, Horticulture, and Saw mills and plywood
Industries with Growth Potential/td> --

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Covering an area of 83,743 sq km, Arunachal Pradesh is the largest state in the Northeast India. The state is located in the extreme North eastern corner of the country where it shares its border with the neighbouring countries of Bhutan in the West, China (Tibet) in the North and Northeast, Myanmar in the East and Southeast and the Indian states of Assam and Nagaland in the South.

The capital of the state is Itanagar; other major towns include Naharlagun, Tawang, Tezpur, Bomdila, Ziro, and Pasighatand Tezuare. The state is divided into 16 administrative districts.

Much of Arunachal Pradesh is covered by the Himalayan Mountains, the Himalayan ranges that extend up to the eastern Arunachal separate it from Tibet. The ranges extend toward Nagaland, and form a boundary between India and Burma in Changlang and Tirap district. The foothills of the Himalayan Mountains and the patkai hills are home to the eastern Himalayan broad leaf forests. Brahmaputra is the major river flowing through the state. Other smaller rivers include Kameng, Subansiri, and Lohitand Tirap.

The climate in the state fluctuates due to the varying levels of elevation; areas that are at a very high elevation close to the Tibetan border enjoy an alpine or Tundra climate. Below the upper Himalayas are the Middle Himalayas, where people experience a temperate climate. Areas at the sub- Himalayan and sea level elevation generally experience humid, sub-tropical climate with hot summers and mild winters.

The most commonly spoken languages are Assamese, Bengali and Hindi. English is the primary medium of education in the schools.

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Arunachal Pradesh

Population density (persons per sq km) 13
Total Population (million) 1.1
Male Population (million) 0.6
Female Population (million) 0.5
Population growth rate 1991-2001 (%) 27
Sex ratio (females per 1,000 males) 901
Literacy Rate (per cent) 54.3
Male (%) 63.8
Female (%) 43.5
Average life expectancy (years) 54.1

The state of Arunachal Pradesh has a population of 1.1 million making it one of the smallest states, by population, in India.

The culture and heritage in the state is incredibly diverse, being bordered with three different countries the state of Arunachal Pradesh is home to a range of different tribes possessing different customs and cultures based upon which border they reside nearest to.

No official records exist with regards to the percentage of religions present in the state as the majority of the tribes and indigenous people of the state are animist, and follow shamanistic-animistic religious traditions such as Donyi-Polo (in the Tani area) and Rangfrah (further east). It is believed that Christianity is growing rapidly in the state due to the presence and work of a growing number of Christian Missionaries. However recently a law has been introduced to try and protect the indigenous religions by restricting the spread of other religions.

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The economy in the state has seen substantial growth over the last decade with the GSDP increasing by over 13.8% from 2000-01 to 2007-08 from 370.8 US$ million at current prices to 916.1 US% million at current prices.


Arunachal Pradesh GSDP

The NSPD grew at a similar rate, 13.1%, from 344.7 US$ million in 2000-01 to 812.4 US$ million in 2007-08.

Arunachal Pradesh NSDP

In 2007-08 the state per capita GSDP at current prices was US$ 768.56 which was after a CAGR growth of 12.4% from 2000-01.

Arunachal Pradesh GSDP Per capita

The majority of the states income comes from the primary and secondary sectors, the primary sector contributed 44.1% to the state GSDP at current prices, and the primary sector contributed a further 55.6%. The tertiary sector is the largest contributor to the states economy. The sector grew at a CAGR of 8.1 percent between 2000-01 and 2007-08.

According to records published by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI), foreign direct investments from April 2000 to October 2009 amounted to US$ 55.03 million. Total outstanding investments stood at US$ 18.3 billion of which the energy sector accounted for over 99 percent.

The key industries identified in the state of Arunachal are; Arts and crafts, weaving, cane and bamboo, carpet weaving, wood carving, ornaments, tourism, horticulture, and saw mills and plywood.

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Physical Infrastructure


The state of Arunachal Pradesh has a total road length of 15.091 km with road density of 17.36 km per 100 sq km. The state also has six national highways connecting it with the rest of India as well as the international borders with China (Tibet), Myanmar and Bhutan.

Road Infrastructure

Road length (km)

National Highways (km) 1992
Total road length (km) 15091
Male Population (million) 0.6
Road density (km per 100 km) 17.4
Surfaced roads (% of total) 49.6
Villages connected by roads (% of total) 38.5

Air and Railway

The state has one domestic airport located in Tezu. The airport operates passenger flight services by nine-seat Dauphin helicopters, which were introduced by the government to overcome the constraints posed by the hilly terrain. The airport, through these helicopters, connects the towns of Naharlauna and Tawang to Guwahati in the sate of Assam, along with 29 other major towns in the northern part of India.

The state does not have a railway station, the nearest one being located at Harmoti in Assam, 23 km from Naharlagun and 33 km from Itanagar.


The total power capacity available to the state is 180.1 MW, of that 120 MW comes from the states share in the central sector capacity and the remaining 61.1 MW from an installed power capacity in the state.

Renewable energy sources, controlled by the ministry of new and renewable Energy accounted for 79.5 per cent of the total installed capacity. The per capita consumption of electricity in the state was 297.7 kWh in 2005-06. The development of the immense hydro power potential has been assigned to the department of hydro power development. The department was created by the state government to oversee, coordinate and monitor hydro power development.

The state government has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with central sector power generators and integrated power developers (IPD) for the development of 72 hydro electric power plants, with an aggregate capacity of 25,722 MW.


Arunachal Pradesh has around 303 post offices, 31 telegraph offices and 94 telephone exchanges spread out around the state. The states tele-density (telephones per 100 persons) was 3.61 percent.There are 695 subscriber trunk dialling booths, 583 village telephones, 24 local public call offices, and 273 internet connections.

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Social Infrastructure

The state has sanctioned three projects costing US$ 39.2 million for the state capital Itanagar; the projects will be carried out under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM). Projects which have been sanctioned include projects for water supply, solid waste management and urban transport. The majority of the projects under the JNNRUM are either at the approval stage or work-in progress. The Urban transport project was approved in 2009 while two other projects were approved in 2007.


The state of Arunachal Pradesh had a literacy rate of 54.3 per cent, the literacy rate the male population was 68.8 per cent and for 43.5 per cent for females. The literacy rate is lower than the all India average which stands at 66 per cent. The low literacy rates are a major concern for the state government. To combat the issue the government has launched the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) which is a national flagship programme on education which aims to achieve universal elementary education in a mission mode. As of March 2006 2,166 teachers had been recruited and over 51000 children enrolled under the SSA.


Arunachal Pradesh has a well established health infrastructure established through a three-tier public healthcare infrastructure, compromising primary health centres, health units, community health centres and sub-centres. US$ 251.68 million has been allocated by the Indian government for improvements in the healthcare in the North East region of the country; Arunachal Pradesh has been earmarked to receive a substantial amount from the fund.

Health Infrastructure in Arunchal Pradesh

General hospitals 3
District hospitals 11
Community health centres 19
Primary health centres 17.4
Ayurvedic dispensaries 12
Homoeopathic institutions 37
TB hospitals 2

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Cultural Infrastructure

The state has a good sports infrastructure with a number of facilities/stadia available. The most prominent sports in the state are Angling, Trekking, river rafting, archery and fishing.


Industrial Infrastructure

Arunachal Pradesh has a well established industrial infrastructure with the aim of growth and development of small scale industries. The state has 13 industrial located in different districts.

To help the industrial development the government has set up district industries centres (DICs) in all 16 districts. These DICs play a vital role in the industrial development by providing services to the entrepreneurs by; identifying suitable schemes, preparation of project report, arrangement for providing require plant, machinery and raw materials, assistance in availing incentives and facilities provided by both central and state governments liaison with all development departments and financial institutions to provide assistance to the prospective entrepreneurs.


The state has a potential of an additional 57000 MW. As of December 2009, projects of capacity of 25,722 MW have been allotted to central public sector enterprise and private sector enterprises. There are 23 private entities that have power projects under implementation in the state.

Over the past decade the state has received significant investments in the power infrastructure sector. With the aid of these investments and the funds from the Indian Prime Minister's package work on several incomplete hydro power projects has been restarted.

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More Information on Arunachal Pradesh

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